Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons (ISSN 0002-8045) is
published monthly by the American College of Surgeons, 633 N.
Saint Clair St., Chicago, IL 60611. It is distributed without charge to
Fellows, Associate Fellows, Resident and Medical Student Members,
Affiliate Members, and to medical libraries and allied health
personnel. Periodicals postage paid at Chicago, IL, and additional
mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Bulletin of the
American College of Surgeons, 3251 Riverport Lane, Maryland Heights,
MO 63043. Canadian Publications Mail Agreement No. 40035010.
Canada returns to: Station A, PO Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5.
The American College of Surgeons’ headquarters is located at
633 N. Saint Clair St., Chicago, IL 60611-3211; tel. 312-202-5000;
toll-free: 800-621-4111; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; website:
facs.org. The Washington, DC, Office is located at 20 F Street N. W.
Suite 1000, Washington, DC. 20001-6701; tel. 202-337-2701.
Unless specifically stated otherwise, the opinions expressed
and statements made in this publication reflect the authors’
personal observations and do not imply endorsement by
nor official policy of the American College of Surgeons.
©2017 by the American College of Surgeons, all rights reserved. Contents
may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form by any means without prior written permission of the publisher.
Library of Congress number 45-49454. Printed in the
USA. Publications Agreement No. 1564382.
ACS Communities allow you
to tap into the College’s collective
knowledge anytime, anywhere,
and on any device.
DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF
SENIOR GRAPHIC DESIGNER/
EDITORIAL AND PRODUC TION
Charles D. Mabry, MD, FACS
Leigh A. Neumayer, MD, FACS
Marshall Z. Schwartz, MD, FACS
Mark C. Weissler, MD, FACS
FRONT COVER DESIGN
The American College of Surgeons is dedicated
to improving the care of the surgical patient
and to safeguarding standards of care in an
optimal and ethical practice environment.
Letters to the Editor
should be sent
with the writer’s
org, or via mail to
Diane S. Schneidman,
Chicago, IL 60611.
Letters may be edited
for length or clarity.
Permission to publish
letters is assumed
unless the author