epidemic. If fully funded, this law would expand access
to evidence-based therapies to treat patients who have
disorders related to certain opioids, including methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone.
Several states have enacted regulations to reduce
opioid-related adverse events. For example, as of April,
49 states and the District of Columbia have enacted
PDMP regulations (although some are not fully operational at press time), each with specific requirements
regarding opioid access and use. The only state without a PDMP is Missouri, though the Missouri General
Assembly considered PDMP legislation in the 2017 legislative session.
31 After mandating use of PDMPs, New
York and Tennessee showed a reduction in patients
seeking prescriptions from multiple providers by 75
percent and 36 percent, respectively.
A total of 17 states now require licensed physicians
to undergo supplemental opioid prescribing or addiction education for licensure (see Figure 1, this page).
Several other states require that health care professionals undergo this training if they are responsible
for pain management or addiction treatment. Unfortunately, physicians in training are often overlooked as
controlled substance prescribers and, therefore, miss
out on additional educational opportunities. The reason
that residents and fellows are excluded from many
studies examining physician prescribing habits is that
they often use their training facility’s DEA registration rather than using DEA registration under their
Other initiatives at the state level aimed at addressing the opioid epidemic include Florida, which enacted
regulations curtailing clinics and providers from dispensing painkillers from their offices beginning in 2010,
resulting in a 52 percent decrease in overdose deaths
33 Recently, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, and
Vermont passed laws limiting the length of opioid prescriptions for acute pain, with the most common limit
being seven days.
34 In all, 22 states, plus Guam, Puerto
CDS LICENSING AND REGISTRATION AND MEDICAL EDUCATION TRAINING
REQUIREMENTS BY STATE, AS OF JUNE 21, 2017