16. California Health Care Foundation. Health care
costs 101: ACA spurs modest growth. California
Health Care Almanac. Available at: www.chcf.org/
publications/2016/05/health-care-costs-101. Accessed June
17. Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, eds. To Err Is
Human: Building A Safer Health System. Committee on
Quality of Health Care in America, Institute of Medicine.
Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000.
18. Fleming N. Revealed: Army surgeon actually a woman.
The Telegraph. March 5, 2008. Available at: www.telegraph.
Army-surgeon-actually-a-woman.html. Accessed June 30,
19. Wirtzfeld DA. The history of women in surgery. Can J Surg.
2009; 52( 4):317-320.
20. Association of Women Surgeons. The Association of
Women Surgeons is important…and here’s why. Available
is_Important.pdf. Accessed June 27, 2016.
21. Changing the face of medicine. Dr. Olga Jonasson.
NIH/U.S. National Library of Medicine website. Available
22. National Library of Medicine. Olga Jonasson, MD, FACS
(1934–2006). Available at: facs.org/about acs/archives/
pasthighlights/jonassonhighlight. Accessed June 27, 2016.
23. Grant SB, Hon H, Iyer P, Smith C, Sun S. The RAS-ACS:
Recruiting medical students and training future leaders.
Bull Am Coll Surg. 2015;100( 8): 23-28. Available at: bulletin.
and-training-future-leaders/. Accessed July 19, 2016.
rates for enrollment in the ACS Surgical Education
and Self-Assessment Program, and access to the Fundamentals of Surgery Curriculum. The RAS-ACS also
provides its members with career planning resources,
networking opportunities (including international networking), advocacy, career cultivation, and connections
to fellowship/scholarship opportunities through the
ACS Division of Research and Optimal Patient Care’s
Clinical Scholars in Residence program.
A lasting and continuing legacy
Several key founding and guiding principles remain
prominent themes within the ACS. One of the more
important challenges for surgeons is to find innovative
ways to remain dynamic and to continually improve.
To obtain FACS status, a surgeon is required to receive
education and technical training and to meet professional qualifications, surgical competency, and ethical
conduct requirements in order to meet the highest standards established by the College. This lasting legacy,
now often taken for granted, is due to the efforts of
the many dedicated members and leaders of the ACS
who have continued to raise the standards of surgery
in the past century. ♦