12. Dawe S, Pena G, Windsor J, et al. Systematic review of
skills transfer after surgical simulation-based training.
Br J Surg. 101( 9):1063-1076.
13. Buckley C, Kavanagh D, Traynor O, Neary P. Is the
skillset obtained in surgical simulation transferable to
the operating theatre? Am J Surg. 2014;207( 1):146-157.
14. Grantcharov T, Schulze S, Kristiansen V. The impact
of objective assessment and constructive feedback
on improvement of laparoscopic performance in the
operating room. Surg Endosc. 2007; 21( 12):2240-2243.
15. Bonrath EM, Dedy NJ, Gordon LE, Grantcharov TP.
Comprehensive surgical coaching enhances surgical
skill in the operating room: A randomized controlled
trial. Ann Surg. March 27, 2015. [Epub ahead of print].
16. Jensen A, Wright A, Kim S, Horvath K, Calhoun K.
Educational feedback in the operating room: A gap
between resident and faculty perceptions. Am J Surg.
17. Kogan J. How to evaluate and give feedback. In:
Roberts LW, ed. The Academic Medicine Handbook: A
Guide to Achievement and Fulfillment for Academic Faculty.
New York, N Y: Springer; 2013:91-101.
18. Liberman A, Liberman M, Steinert Y. Surgery residents
and attending surgeons have different perceptions of
feedback. Med Teach. 2005; 27( 5):470-472.
19. Nasca TJ, Philibert I, Brigham T, Flynn TC. The next
GME accreditation system—rationale and benefits. N
Engl J Med. 2012;366( 11):1051-1056.
20. Boerebach BC, Arah OA, Heineman MJ, Busch
OR, Lombarts KM. The impact of resident and
self-evaluations on surgeons’ subsequent teaching
performance. World J Surg. 2014; 38( 11):2761-2769.
21. Fluit CV, Bolhuis S, Klaassen T, et al. Residents provide
feedback to their clinical teachers: Reflection through
dialogue. Med Teach. 2013; 35( 9):e1485-e1492.
22. Ehrlich PF, Seidman PA. Deconstructing surgical
education—teacher quality really matters: Implications
for attracting medical students to surgical careers. Am
Surg. 2006; 72( 5):430-434.
“upward feedback,” as it is known, should be used to
enhance the educational benefit of the learner. 21 This
type of feedback should be used to reinforce the positive
aspects of the interaction and serve to enhance the collegial and educational relationship between the learner
and educator. For example, the resident might make the
following statement: “I like when you let me decide which
stapler to use.” It can also be used to communicate what
isn’t working for the learner, with a statement such as,
“I don’t understand what you mean when you say….”
Effective formative feedback provides the opportunity for
self-assessment and usually ends with a plan for improvement. When delivered consistently and appropriately,
feedback can lead to more a productive instructor-trainee
dynamic. 17 In surgery, specifically, good instructors are
identified as those educators who challenge trainees to
think, provide useful feedback for their work, communicate ideas well, and express a positive attitude toward
trainees and teaching. 22 At the fundamental level, the
medical student, the resident, and the attending all share
the same goal—to provide the best care for the patient.
Well-executed feedback provided at all levels of training
and/or practice should be recognized as essential to this
most basic mission. ♦