Building on prior efforts
LCoGS is not the first organized effort to advocate for
surgery as a vital component of the global public health
agenda. On the contrary—its work would not be possible without the efforts of many groups and individuals.
For example, NGOs and humanitarian groups, such
as Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), which began its
first surgical work in the Chad-Libya war, have demonstrated the feasibility of and need for provision of
surgical services in remote and low-resource settings
through direct care delivery. 21 Global health leaders
such as Halfdan T. Mahler, MD, former director-general
of the WHO, have argued for surgery’s role in facilitating a comprehensive picture of health care, stating
that “surgery clearly has an important role to play in
primary health care and in the services supporting it.” 22
The WHO has initiated or supported several efforts to
strengthen global surgical care delivery, such as those of
the Global Initiative for Emergency and Essential Surgical Care. The Bellagio Essential Surgery Group was
formed in 2007 to advocate for improved access to surgical care within sub-Saharan Africa, generating some
of the most widely-referenced global surgery reports
to date. 23, 24 Many additional groups, such as The Alliance for Surgery and Anesthesia Presence, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) Operation Giving Back
program (OGB), and both the second and third editions
of Disease Control Priorities, have worked tirelessly on
FIGURE 2. GLOBAL COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT WITH LCoGS
A total of 25 commissioners, advisors, researchers, and collaborators from more than
110 countries (indicated in blue on map) contributed to LCoGS’s work in 2014.
1. Bickler SW, Weiser T, Kassenbaum N, et al. Chapter 2:
Global burden of surgical conditions. Disease Control
Priorities, 3rd Edition: Economic Evaluation for Health. New
York, N Y: Oxford University Press. [In press March 2015.]
2. Alkire B, Hughes CD, Nash K, Vincent JR, Meara JG.
Potential economic benefit of cleft lip and palate repair in
sub-Saharan Africa. World J Surg. 2011; 35( 6):1194-1201.
3. Funk LM, Weiser TG, Berry WR, et al. Global operating
theatre distribution and pulse oximetry supply: An
estimation from reported data. Lancet. 2010;376(9746):1055-
4. Kotagal M, Agarwal-Harding KJ, Mock C, Quansah R,
Arreola-Risa C, Meara JG. Health and economic benefits of
improved injury prevention and trauma care worldwide.
PLoS One. 2014; 9( 3):e91862.
5. Mock CN, Donkor P, Gawande A, Jamison DT, Kruk ME,
Debas HT. Essential surgery: Key messages from Disease
Control Priorities, 3rd Edition. Lancet. February 2015. [Epub
ahead of print.]
6. Verguet S, Norheim OF, Olson ZD, Yamey G, Jamison
DT. Annual rates of decline in child, maternal, HIV,
and tuberculosis mortality across 109 countries of low
and middle income from 1990 to 2013: An assessment
of the feasibility of post-2015 goals. Lancet Glob Health.
2014; 2( 12):e698-709.
7. Chao TE, Sharma K, Mandigo M, et al. Cost-effectiveness
of surgery and its policy implications for global health:
A systematic review and analysis. Lancet Glob Health.
2014; 2( 6):e334-e345.
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